Modernization and its Political Consequences
 
Adorno, Th

Name Index



Adorno, Theodor, 221

Allen, Robert, 229

Almond, Gabriel, 28, 115, 228

Ammerman, Nancy, 228

Anderson, Perry, 212

Anderson, Sarah, 236

Arendt, Hannah, 217

Aristotle, 181

Aron, Raymond, 216

Arrow, Kenneth, 235, 238

Augello, Massimo, 229

 

Bachrach, Peter, 201, 227

Bakker, Wieger, 66,

Banning, Willem, 66

Baratz, Morton, 227

Barone, Enrico, 142

Bartók, Bella, 62

Baudelaire, Charles, 25

Bauer, Otto, 117

Baxter, Richard, 34

Bay, Christian, 201

Beck, Ulrich, 224

Bellah, Robert, 207

Bendix, Reinhard, 213

Bentham, Jeremy, 201

Benton, Ted, 227

Berelson, Bernard, 115

Berger, Peter, 223

Berki, Robert, 212

Berlin, Sir Isaiah, 5, 113, 214, 238

Bernstein, Eduard, 123, 152

Bismarck, Otto von, 18, 52, 233

Bettelheim, Bruno, 215

Blair, Tony, 14

Bloch, Ernst, 20

Blokland, Talja, 5

Bode, Karl, 230

Böhm-Bawerk, Friedrich von, 117

Bon, Gustave le, 159, 235

Bottomore, Tom, 201, 235

Bradley, Bill, 218-19

Brecht, Arnold, 27-8, 214-15

Brus,

Burke, Edmund, 165

Burnham, James, 178, 222

Bush, George H.W., 173

 

Calvin, John, 36

Chaplin, Charlie, 217

Coe, Richard, 115, 238

Cole, G.H.D., 201

Comte, Auguste, 29

Connolly, William, 223-24

Coser, Lewis, 18-20, 22, 62-63, 73, 213, 221

Court, Pieter de la, 36

Crenson, Matthew, 227

Cuperus, René, 212

 

Dahl, Robert, vi, xii-xv, 7, 9-11, 14-16, 66, 111, 115, 181, 202, 222, 225, 227-28, 231, 237, 239

Dahrendorf, Ralf, 207

Dao, James, 219

Daudt, Hans, 115

Davis, Lane, 201

Dewey, Donald, 237

Dewey, John, 64, 94

Dilthey, Wilhelm, 22, 63, 65

Doorn, Jacques van, 2-3, 26, 65, 222

Dostoevsky, Fedor, 62

Downs, Anthony, 115, 239

Dryzek, John, 212

Duffek, Karl, 212

Duncan, Graeme, 201

Durkheim, Emile, 29, 83, 184

 

Eckstein, Harry, 115, 228

Eichman, Adolf, 217

El, Carla van, 65

Elias, Norbert, 225

Eliot, T.S., 221

Engels, Friedrich, 57, 195

Engelsdorp-Gastelaars, Phillippus van, 221

Etzioni, Amitai, 207

 

Farr, James, 212

Feyerabend, Paul, 170

Firuski, Elisabeth, 120

Fischer, Joschka, 218

Franklin, Benjamin, 36-37, 216

Freud, Sigmund, 64

Fromm, Erich, 5, 215, 222

Fukuyama, Francis, 12, 193

 

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 230-31

Gallie, Walter, 239

Gans, Herbert, 213

Gastelaars, Marja, 65

Geertz, Clifford, 228

Gellner, Ernest, 228

Geras, Norman, 215

Gerth, Hans, 20, 217

Giddens, Anthony, 14, 66, 207, 212, 224

Goethe, J. Wolfgang von, 38

Goodin, Robert E., 213

Gore, Albert, 219

Gorz, André, 233

Gray, John, 215

 

Haberler, Gottfried, 114

Habermas, Jürgen, 207

Hacker-Cordón, Casiano, 115, 154

Hauser, Arnold, 62

Hayek, Friedrich von, 144, 232, 238

Hegel, George W.F., 63, 112

Heilbroner, Robert, 114, 116, 121, 170, 172-73, 229

Held, David, 17, 114-15, 181, 198, 235, 239

Herring, Pendleton, 234

Herzen, Alexandre, 223

Hindriks, Rik, 218

Hitler, Adolf, 118

Horkheimer, Max, 221

Houten, Douwinus J. van, 66

Howe, W. Stuart, 172

Hughes, John A., 216

Huntington, Samuel, 115

Husserl, Edmund, 64-5

 

Jaspers, Karl, 20

Jefferson, Thomas, 162

Jonker, Eduard, 65

 

Kadt, Jacques de, 222

Kalma, Paul, 13, 65

Kandel, Johannes, 212

Kant, Immanuel, 22

Kavanagh, John, 236

Kelso, William, 198

Kent, Frank, 236

Keynes, John Maynard, 114, 116, 119-20, 229, 239

Kierkegaard, Sřren, 62

Kimlicka, Will, 223

Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, 213

Kodály, Zoltán, 62

Kohl, Helmut, 212

Kolakowski, Leszek, 221, 238

Kristof, Nicholas, 219

Kuhn, Thomas, 223

Kun, Béla, 229

 

Laeyendecker, Leo, 66, 207

Lakatos, Imre, 170

Lane, Robert, 5, 11, 217, 227, 229, 231

Lange, Oskar, 142, 232

Laski, Harold, 4, 222

Lasswell, Harold, 4, 234

Lazarsfeld, Paul, 115

Lederer, Emil, 230

Leeuw, Gerard van der, 66

Lehmann, Hartmut, 216

Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 175, 234

Leonard, Stephen, 212

Lerner, Abba, 142, 232

Levy, A.B., 222

Lincoln, Abraham, 162

Lindblom, Charles, xii-xv, 7, 9-11, 14-16, 22, 66, 75, 111, 114-15, 174, 179, 181, 212, 225, 228-29, 233

Lindsay, Lord of Birker, 221

Lippmann, Walter, 234-36

Lipset, Seymour M., 115

Lipsky, Michael, 227

Lively, Jack, 181, 235

Locke, John, 157

Lowell, Lawrence, 236

Löwe, Adolf, 230

Lowi, Theodore, 10

Lubbers, Ruud, 212

Luckmann, Thomas, 223

Ludendorff, Erich, 218

Luhmann, Niklas, 207

Lukács, Georg, 20, 62, 221, 223

Lukes, Steven, 201, 227

 

MacIntyre, Alasdair, 207

MacPherson, Crawford Brough, 235

MacRae, Donald, 20, 213

Man, Hendrik de, 222

Mandelbaum, K., 222

Mann, Thomas, vi

Mao Tse-Tung, 17

Marcuse, Herbert, 109, 221

Marshall, Alfred, 127

Marx, Karl, 3, 17, 20, 22, 29, 57, 63, 67-68, 116, 123-25, 128, 134, 141, 145, 150, 152-53, 177, 184, 195, 213, 216, 223, 230, 232, 238

März, Eduard, 116

McPhee, William, 115

Mead, George Herbert, 64

Merriam, Charles, 234

Merton, Robert, 73

Michels, Roberto, 20, 46, 49, 218, 222

Mill, John, 201

Mill, John Stuart, 17, 181, 201

Mills, C. Wright, 20, 217

Mises, Ludwig von, 142, 232

Mommsen, Wolfgang, 19-21, 49-50, 57-58, 213, 217-20

Moon, Donald, 214

Mumford, Lewis, 5

 

Needham, Joseph, 215

Neurath, Otto, 221

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 20-21, 25

Nisbet, Robert, 28

Nove, Alec, 232

 

Oakeshott, Michael, 221

Offe, Claus, 224

Oldham, Joseph, 221

 

Parekh, Bhikhu, 212

Parry, Geraint, 115

Pateman, Carole, 114-15, 201, 229

Patterson, Orlando, 224

Pharr, Susan, 12

Polanyi, Michael, 62

Polsby, Nelson, 115, 227

Poole, Herbert, 221

Prezeworski, Adam, 238

Putnam, Robert, 12, 228

 

Reagan, Ronald, 173

Reich, Charles, 66

Reisinger, Anna, 119

Renner, Karl, 117

Ricci, David, 212

Rickert, Heinrich, 20, 22, 64-65

Robbins, Lionel, 144

Robinson, Joan, 232

Roemer, John, 238

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 118

Rorty, Richard, 170

Roth, Günther, 216, 234

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 201

 

Samuels, Warren, 179

Sandel, Michael, 225

Sartori, Giovanni, 115

Schaar, John, 215

Scheler, Max, 62, 65, 79

Scherer, Frederic M., 172-73

Schiller, Friedrich, 24

Schumacher, Ernst F., 222

Shapiro, Ian, 115, 154

Shaw, George Bernard, 221

Shionoya, Yuigi, 116, 119-20, 229

Simmel, Georg, 5, 20, 62

Smith, Adam, 127, 237

Sombart, Werner, 20

Stalin, Joseph, 118

Stanislaw, Joseph, 211, 237

Stolper, Wolfgang, 116, 118-20, 122, 125, 230, 232

Strauss, Leo, 27, 195

Sturmthal, Adolf, 237

Swedberg, Richard, 114, 116, 118-19, 179, 230

 

Tawney, Richard H., 104

Taylor, Charles, 2, 6, 66, 215, 223, 225-26

Thatcher, Margaret, 212

Thoenes, Piet, 63, 222

Tilly, Charles, 183-84

Tinbergen, Jan, 120, 229

Tobin, James, 239

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 221

Tolstoy, Lev, 24

Tönnies, Ferdinand, 5, 29, 184

Troeltsch, Ernst, 20, 63, 213

Trotsky, Leon, 148

Truman, David, 115

Turner, Brian, 20

 

Uyl, Joop den, 65

 

Valk, Koos de, 22, 25, 28, 213, 215

Veenhoven, Ruut, 231

Verba, Sidney, 115, 228

Vidal, John, 239

 

Wallas, Graham, 234, 236

Weber, Alfred, 62, 71

Weber, Marianne, 213, 218

Wesley, John, 35-36

Wicksell, Knut, 127

Wieser, Eugon von, 117

Wilber, Charles, 115, 238

Williams, Gertrude, 222

Williams, Raymond, 201

Windelband, Wilhelm, 20, 22, 64

Wirth, Louis, 5, 67

Wolin, Sheldon S., 201

Woldring, Henk, 65, 221-22

 

Yergin, Daniel, 211, 237

 

Zinn, Howard, 234




Subject Index

 

Aristocracy, 58, 117, 134-35, 149, 220, 231, 237

Ascetic Protestantism, 34-37, 188, 216

Authenticity: and instrumental rationality, 215

 

Behaviorism, 87

Behavioralism, 27, 67

Bourgeoisie, 67, 133, 135-36, 138, 140-41, 147, 149-52, 231, 237

Bureaucracy: defined, 38-40; its bad reputation, 147, 230; its endless persistence, 44-45; its indispensability, 46, 95, 147-48, 168, 192; product and catalyst of functional rationality, 17, 41-44, 56-57, 186, 189-91; threat to humanity, 43-44, 57-58, 94-95, 111, 190-93

Bureaucratization, 3, 6, 17, 38, 50, 52-55, 58-60, 94, 153, 189-94, 199, 206, 218, 222; its driving forces, 40-45, 85, 191-92. See also Business, bureaucratization of; Political Party, bureaucratization of

Business: bureaucratization of, 38, 42-43, 135, 139, 150-51, 171, 190, 194, see also Socialization of private business; privileged position of, 10, 233

 

Capitalism: catalyst of bureaucratization, 42-43; catalyst and product of functional rationality, 2-3, 32-38, 42-43, 57, 78, 131-34, 187-88; defined, 32-33; its civilization and ethos, 32-33, 36-37, 57, 124, 127, 131-34, 138, 141, 176, 217, 232

Charismatic leadership, 21, 46, 52-54, 59, 109-10, 113, 180, 194, 197, 199, 205-06, 217, 219, 239. See also Democracy, and demagoguery; Masses, their manipulability

Children, 105, 130, 140, 228, 231-32

Citizenship, 102, 110, 181, 200-01, 207, 228

Classical economics, 115, 124, 127-29, 160, 171

Common good, 6, 10-12, 14, 45, 95, 108, 149, 158-59, 195, 200, 239

Conservatism, 124-25, 212

Control, types of, 53

Corporate capitalism, 179

Corporatism, 45, 58, 237

Creative destruction, 122, 128-29, 146, 190, 239

 

Democracy: and bureaucratization, 43; and demagoguery, 49, 54, 56, 197, 199; and negative freedom, 102, 113, 165; and responsiveness, 48-49, 56-57, 59, 115, 165, 180, 197-98; and substantive normative debates, 106, 110, 168, 187, 203; as a method to elect leaders, 48-49, 59, 115, 164-65, 180, 197-98, 218; as an elected dictatorship, 54, 56, 198; classical theory of, 157-58, 181-82, 200-02; effects of scale on, 46, 48, 97-98, 103, 108, 112, 156, 159-161, 163, 197-202; influence of Schumpeter on post war theory of, 114-15, 154; militant, 106-08, 203; minimalist conception of, 238; social conditions of, 106-107, 167-69, 202-03

Democratization, 15, 43, 79, 84, 192, 207

Differentiation, 2, 13, 15, 79-81, 92-93, 101, 184, 200, 207-08; defined, 4; political consequences of, 6-7, see also Pluralism

Dilettants and experts, 23, 40-41, 48, 76, 107, 231

Disenchantment (Entzauberung), 21, 24-25, 56, 59, 185, 188, 195

 

Elites, 76-78. See also Intelligentsia, Political leadership

Emancipation dilemma, 203-05, 206-07

End of politics or history, xii, 12, 73-74, 86, 100, 112, 193-96, 205, 238

 

Free market (free enterprise), 15, 31, 175; and anarchy, 60, 96, 98, 188, 190; and community values, 91, 221; as guarantor of freedom, innovation and dynamism, 58, 190; as system of coercion, 2-3, 37, 58, 188-89, see also Capitalism, catalyst and product of functional rationality; capitalists’ dislike of the, 129, 192. See also Laissez faire, Classical economics

Freedom: negative, 5, 13, 59, 98, 113, 204; positive, 13, 38, 101-02, 113, 178-79, 208; positive political, xi-xii, 1-2, 4-7, 10-11, 15, 46, 52, 58-59, 101-02, 109, 112-13, 170, 176-81, 196, 205-09, see also Politics, big vs small, Political powerlessness or malaise. See also Emancipation dilemma

Führerdemokratie, 54, 199

 

General interest. See Common good

Gesinnungsethik vs. Verantwortungsethik, 28, 54-55, 60, 108, 195, 220

 

Historical determinism, 57, 63, 123-25, 174-78, 180, 228, 238. See also Historical Materialism, Positive political freedom

Historical materialism, 19, 57, 63, 123, 175, 177-78, 213, 216, 237

Historicism, 22-23, 63, 67, 120

Horsemanship: Schumpeter’s achievements in, 116, 119, 166

 

Ideology: and knowledge, 67-70, 121, 170-74, 196, 208-09, 223. See also Utopia

Incrementalism, 7-12

Individualization, xi, 2, 12-15, 200, 207-08, 224; defined, 4-5; political consequences of, 6

Industrialization, 3, 79, 81, 84, 92, 109-10, 187, 189, 224-25

Innovation: economic, 122, 128, 130, 135, 144, 146, 150, 171-74, 192, 230-31, 239, see also Creative destruction; social, 3, 50, 58, 91, 111, 113, 189-91, 193, 205, 217, 219

Intellectuals and intelligentsia: Mannheim on, 71-73, 76-78; Weber on, 220; Schumpeter on, 137-40, 149, 229, 234

Interdependence, 76, 79-80, 83, 86, 109, 191, 200, 207, 226

Interest groups, 8-11, 15, 40, 45, 50, 69, 83, 92-93, 122, 158-59, 201, 212. See also Pluralism, political theory of, social

Iron Law of Oligarchy, 46-47, 50, 218

 

Laissez faire, 78, 93, 106, 176, 207, 226. See also Classical economics

Liberalism, xii, 4, 7, 10, 12-17, 49, 57, 91, 95, 98, 106, 187, 202-03, 208, 212, 225, 234. See also Neo-liberalism

 

Masses, the: their irrationality, 49-50, 79, 99, 110, 136, 159-61, 177-78, 199, 236, 238; their manipulability, 49, 56, 90, 96, 98, 160, 162, 179-80, 197, 199, 235; their political (in)competence, 49, 56, 59, 136, 161, 178, 197-200, 208, 239. See also Democracy, and demagoguery, effects of scale on; Charismatic leadership; Public opinion

Modernization, defined, 2-7. See also Rationalization, Differentiation, Individualization

Monopolistic and oligopolistic practices, 128-29, 146, 171-74, 190, 194, 230-31. See also Innovation, economic

Morality: functional vs substantial, 82, 187, 203, 225, 228; historical development of, 83-84

Moral confusion, 25, 57, 102-04, 203, 231

 

Neo-Kantian idealist tradition, 20-22, 64, 71, 75, 214

Neo-liberalism (market liberalism), xii, 13, 15, 173, 212, 220, 232

Neutrality principle, 8, 82, 106, 187, 202-03; defined, 225

 

Orientations of social action, 29-32

 

Parliament: functions of, 46, 50-52, 56, 59, 96-97, 165-66, 197, 220

Planning: and individual freedom, 58, 91, 96, 100-02, 108, 111; and knowledge or information, 66, 83, 85, 100, 112, 144-46; and pluralism, 7-13, 97-99, 166, 207-08; and the end of history, 86, 112, 195; as a result of oligopolies, 171, 176, 179, 190; (awareness of) the need for, 83-85, 109, 191, 207-08, 227; control of the planners, 96, 111-12, 169, 193; defined, 85-86; of personalities, 86-87; of the economy, 58, 96, 142-46, 171, 176, 190, 193; of the interactions between social techniques, 85, 109-10, 191, 207. See also Social techniques

Pluralism: ethical, 7-8, 24-25, 59, 195, 197, 215, 238; political theory of, xiii, 7-13, 115, 212, 225, 229; social, 8-12, 14, 52, 68, 97-99, 201-02, see also Interest groups

Politics: Big vs small, 193-96, 205, 209. See also End of politics or history

Political (dis)interest, xii, 1-2, 6, 12, 79, 159, 161, 201, 228. See also Democracy, effects of scale on; Masses, their political (in)competence

Political (in)competence. See Masses

Political leadership: and sense of responsibility, 54-55, 168-69, 195; its irrelevance, 193, 206. See also Charismatic leadership, Democracy and demagoguerie, Führerdemokratie

Political participation, xiv, 6, 115, 181, 183, 198; and self-fulfillment and community, 181-82, 201-02, 235. See also Democracy, Masses

Political party: its bureaucratization, 42, 46-47, 199, 218; its functions, 47, 50, 56, 165-66, 180, 197, 201, 212, 238; the meaning of its program, 6, 46, 59, 162, 164-66, 177, 180-81, 197, 236, 238

Political powerlessness or malaise, xii, 2, 6, 12-13, 50, 54, 62, 208, 218. See also End of politics or history

Polyarchy, 7-12, 15. See also Pluralism, political theory of

Positivism, 22, 62, 74, 119-20, 214

Postmodernism, 15, 17, 215; and pluralism, 14

Pragmatism, 64, 70, 83, 87, 186

Privatization, xii, 2, 12, 15, 171-72, 174, 206, 211, 234. See also Neo-liberalism

Public choice, 238-39

Public interest. See Common good

Public opinion, 43, 48-49, 59, 90, 138, 159, 162, 197, 218. See also Masses

 

Rationality: value and instrumental, defined, 29-30, 186; substantial and functional, defined, 80-81, 187; formal and substantive, defined, 31-32

Rationalization, xi, 28-34, 38, 45, 56-60, 74, 81-82, 90, 99, 109-11, 184-90, 200; controlling the process of, xii, 4, 6-7, 52, 57, 109, 205-09; defined, 2-3, 29-31; mental, 24-25, 34, 105, 131-34, 137, 140-41, 157, 184-85; of charismatic control, 53; of the economy, 33, 37, 58, 132, 135; of the political party, 47; of the political sphere, 70, 73, 92, 193-94, see also End of politics or history; of the self, 225; of the state, 41. See also Bureaucratization, Disenchantment

Relativism, 14, 27-28, 64, 69, 73, 112, 155, 158, 167, 181-82, 195-96, 205, 215, 228, 239

 

Science: and interdisciplinarity, 75-76, 106, 120, 226; and vision, 23, 76, 107, 121, 170; logical gap between facts and values, 24-25, 158, 185, 195, 214, 235; natural vs human sciences, 20-24, 64, 71, 74, 119-20, 214; progress in, xiii-xiv, 16, 24, 71-74, 121, 170, 173, 212-13, 226, 236; purpose of, 24-25, 71-72. See also Ideology, Positivism, Pragmatism, Sociology of knowledge

Scienticism, 62, 112. See also End of politics or history

Social consciousness, 109-10, 187, 196, 208

Social consensus, 90, 102-05, 107, 110, 169-70, 203, 207-08, 228. See also Pluralism, Moral confusion, Social (dis)integration

Social democracy, xii, 13-16, 65; administrator of capitalism, 152-53. See also Socialism

Social (dis)integration, 11, 90, 99, 102, 106, 184, 207-08, 240

Social techniques, 90-96, 100-01, 105, 185, 207, 222, 227; and concentration of power, 89-90, 100, 111, 193; defined, 89; unintended consequences of, 85, 101, 109-10, 224, see also Interdependence

Socialism, 123, 141-54, 159, 169, 174-81, 190, 193, 205-06, 222, 233-34; and bureaucratization, 45, 58, 147-48, 193; and democracy, 154, 169-70; and market system, 111, 142-45, 193; and modernization, xii, 13, 58, 65, 212; defined, 141; discipline and motivation within, 45, 146-49; its civilization, 141, 145, 178, 194-95, 232; its inevitability, 116, 124-26, 149-51, 153, 174-78, 190, 206, 238; rationality of its economy, 142-47, 151

Socialization of private business, 45, 58, 149-53, 171, 175, 237, 239. See also Business, bureaucratization of

Sociology of knowledge, 63, 66-74, 82, 109, 112, 123, 196, 208, 226

Sozial freischwebende Intelligenz, 71-73

State, the: and the legitimate use of force, 41, 56

Stimmungsdemokratie, 79, 110, 199

Struggle: between classes or social groups, 20, 33, 71, 91, 124, 138; between companies, 3, 33, 53, 128, see also Laissez faire, Classical economics, Capitalism; between gods or values, 25, 46, 149, see also Pluralism, ethical; between interest groups, 15, 58, 169-70, 182, see also Pluralism, political theory of; between nations, 219; for political power, 45, 47-49, 51, 53, 56, 111, 164-66, 169, 194, 197-98, 219, 239; for survival, 58, 83, 148; with a bureaucracy, 44-45, 147, see also Bureaucracy, threat to humanity

 

Tolerance, 82, 106, 156, 169, 187, 203, 208. See also Neutrality principle

 

Utilitarianism, 36-37, 133, 140, 157, 159, 163, 232

Utopia, xii, 13, 15, 209, 223

 

Verantwortungsethik. See Gesinnungsethik

 

Welfare state, xii, 14, 42, 107, 57-58, 176, 208