1 General introduction

Cultural participation in Western liberal democracies 1

Positive and negative freedom 2

The emancipation dilemma 4

Essentially contested concepts 6

Task and method of political science 7

Structure of the discourse 10

2 Isaiah Berlin on positive and negative freedom

Introduction 13

Berlin’s philosophy 15

Epistemology and theory of science


Value relativism?

Positive and negative freedom 24


Negative liberty

Positive liberty

Historical derailments of positive freedom

Necessary balancing of values

Some themes for discussion 34

Privacy, self-determination, self-management and self development

Inner impediments and higher goals

Positive freedom and rationalism

Freedom as a state or as an experience

Superhuman coercion: social structures


3 Freedom of the individual

Introduction 46

The interpretation of fundamentally disputed concepts

Frithjof Bergmann: the necessity of an identity 49

Identification as a condition of freedom

The definition of identity

Some comments

Harry Frankfurt and the essence of man: second-order goals 53

Charles Taylor: qualitative evaluation, identity and the Good Life 55

Strong evaluation and identity

Life as a single narrative

Articulation of the Good

The limitations of the negative conception of freedom

The inadequacy of the current culture of authenticity

Some comments

Robert Young: life plan 66

Benjamin Barber: intentionalism 67

Two models of freedom

Three forms of coercion

Freedom due to suppression of non-intentional behavi­our

Freedom as struggle and regret

Provisional conclusions 71

Bruno Bettelheim: integrity and willpower 73

S.I.Benn: autharchy or broadmindedness 75

Richard Lindley: active theoretical rationality 76

John Benson: the courage to be free and to trust in others 77

Gerard Dworkin: qualifying moral originality 78

Joel Feinberg: the need for a starting-point and the right centre 79

Final conclusions 81

Once again: negative and positive freedom

4 Freedom and society

Introduction 85

Absence of constraints and/or presence of opportunities 86

Freedom as a triadic relation

Positive freedom: distinguishing a larger number of constraints

The theory-laden definition of obstacles and possibilities


Crawford Brough MacPherson: the right to (conditions of) free­dom 94

Self-realization, democracy and scarcity

The connection between freedom and its conditions

Contradictions between, and perversions of, freedoms


Steven Lukes: the social conditions of individualism 103

Three elements of freedom

True respect for the individual

Abstract conception of the individual

Charles Taylor: critique of atomism 107

The impossible self-sufficiency of the individual

Duties to society

Frithjof Bergmann: identification within the community 110

Discussion 112


Open-ended self-development

The value of isolation

Richard Norman: freedom and equality 116

Negative and positive conditions of freedom

Equality as a natural value within a cooperative

Equality as the promotion of egalitarian social conditi­ons

Conditions of equality

Freedom and equality as harmonious values

Balance 122

The democratic community versus liberal politics

Freedom and the number of options: a proportional relation?

The distinction between freedom and its conditions

Right to the conditions of freedom?

The inevitability of notions of common sense

5 Emancipation and paternalism

Introduction 136

On power and “real interests” 137

Dahl, Bachrach & Baratz and Lukes on conceptions of power

Lukes and Connolly on “real” interests

Problems of the radical conception

Structural determination or exercise of power

Smith: the incontestability of “real” interests 146

Ted Benton’s emancipation paradox 149

Richard Lindley on dilemmas 151

Intermediary conclusions 154

Paternalism: some definitions and distinctions 158

John Stuart Mill’s liberty principle 160

Joel Feinberg: paternalism and voluntariness 163

Gerald Dworkin: paternalism and rationality 163

Rosemary Carter: paternalism and consent 165

Donald VanDeVeer: against rationality and voluntariness 166

John Kleinig: paternalism guarantee of autonomy 168

Conclusions 170

6 Final balance and synthesis: freedom and cultural politics

Introduction 176

Positive and negative freedom 176

The emancipation dilemma 182

Paternalism and rationalism 185

Culture and autonomy 189

The burdens and benefits of freedom: autonomy or happiness? 193

More reasons to promote the dissemination of culture and autonomy 198

7 Cultural policy

Introduction 202

Cultural dissemination as policy objective 203

Historic motives

Converging policy traditions.

Social inequality in cultural participation 208

Trends in participation in cultural activities 210

Reading books, journals and newspapers

The rise of television viewing

Discussion: typographic versus electronic culture

Attendance for performing arts

Visiting museums

Receptive cultural participation at home and on the street

Amateur art performance

The elevation of the concept of art to “culture”


Determinants of cultural participation 231

Available time

Available financial resources

Cultural competence

Acquiring status and the drive to distinction


Cultural policy in practice 236


The emphasis on the supply of facilities

Explanations of the one-sided emphasis on supply policy 243


Incrementalism: short-term thinking and the influence of intere­sted parties

Faith in spontaneous self-development

Individualization as self-realisation

Cultural relativism

Cultural politics within the culture of authenticity 247

The concept of democracy

The concept of culture

Additional critique of the status theory

Towards a policy of cultural dissemination or demand 263


The development of a normative cultural political fra­mework

The social context: work and leisure

Cultural education

Media policy

The narrowing of the gap between professionals and laymen

Linking up with mass culture

Amateur art performance

Involving social organizations

Evoking the drive to distinction

Architecture and design

8 Epilogue

Notes 277

Bibliography: Freedom and autonomy 296

Bibliography: Arts and culture 304

Name index 311

Subject index 315

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert